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    讓“學習”回歸真實,把“學習”還給學生

    • -北京市建華實驗亦莊國際高中籌備組
    • 2019/04/04

    THEIA創刊文的開篇,我們就向大家宣告:我們正在創見一所讓教育回歸真實的學校,力求真正喚醒、啟迪、激勵和賦能每個孩子,讓他們成為更好的自己、更好的社會人。


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    談到學校,必然繞不開教師的和學生的這兩個緊密相連但又各有側重的核心命題。

     

    從“以教定學”到“以學定教”

    從“以教定學”到“以學定教”,智能時代背景下,社會的快速發展催促著學校教育逃離工業時代流水線似的標準品加工模式,越來越突出學生的主體地位,突出以學生為中心的“學習”的研究和實踐。學習這件事需要從教師手中還給學生,這是時代發展的必然趨勢。

     

    同時,以一名非住宿生為例,在校時間一半以上在學習,準確講是在“正式學習”,如果算上“非正式學習”,學生在學校的學習時間超過12個小時。不論從哪個角度來講,實現“真實的學習”都是創見“真實的學校”的必要前提!

     

    回顧我們自身的學習歷程,如果被問起“學習”到底是什么,它究竟是如何發生的,如何能讓它更快更好地被推進,似乎很難說清楚。不論是教育學者、心理學家,還是腦科學、神經生物科學家都試圖破解這一謎題。而教育實踐者們更是對《可見的學習》、《人是如何學習的》、《如何高效學習》、《學習科學》等著作趨之若鶩,掀起了一股學習“學習”的熱潮。不論是在理論研究層面,還是在實踐探索層面,“真實的學習”這件事情本身會被、也正在被更多地發現和創新。

     

    如何把學習還給學生

    我們更愿意站在學校這一中觀層面上,基于未來的視角分享“真實的學校”中的“真實的學習”是什么樣的,如何把學習還給學生。

     

    1.學習的空間

    一個學生可以在不同的學校學習,不同的學校相互承認學分。與此同時,學校的物理邊界被不斷突破,學習不但發生在校內,更發生在校外,甚至發生在校外的時間更長。作為美國最著名的創新學校之一,Minerva大學打破傳統意義上的校園邊界,把不同的城市變成學習的空間,學生4年將在全球7個不同的國家、地區學習和生活,這是變革學習空間最有力的實踐者。

     

    2.學習的時間

    學校將全時段開放,無工作日雙休日之分,學期與寒暑假之分。與此同時,學生的日程表不再被塞滿學校安排的課程,他們可以獲得更多自主靈活的時間。這是個性化學習得以發生的必要前提。同時課程和學制也更加靈活,學生總體在校時間依學生學習需求而定。

     

    3.學習的方式

    在教學資源越來越豐富的前提下,項目式、對話式、體驗式等教學方式被更廣泛的采用,線上線下相結合將成為常態。學習方式不但由學習內容決定,更是由提升學生綜合能力這一目標而決定。哲學思辨的能力在蘇格拉底式的對話交流中提升,溝通與領導能力在項目實踐中得以培養。被比爾·蓋茨稱為“每一個美國孩子都為之向往”的High Tech High(簡稱HTH),就是一所以“全項目制”為特色的創新學校,從112年級所有科目都采用項目制方式,跨學科跨領域開展,在完成項目的過程中培養學生的自主學習、探究學習、合作學習各方面的能力。

     

    4.學習的伙伴

    越來越多的社會人將以兼職教師的身份加入學校,他們不再只是知識傳遞者,更是陪伴者、指導者和教練。他們來自世界各地和各行各業,引領學生體驗更具專業性、時代前瞻性和現實意義的學習經歷。跨學校、跨年齡、跨地區和跨國家的學生可以聚集在一起,彼此交流,相互激發,共同學習。

     

    5.學習的評價

    評價的目的不再是給學生分三六九等,而是更多側重個人總結與反思,強調個人獨特性的展現。評價,尤其是終結性評價不再只是紙筆測試,學生的個人成長作品、路演展示、論文報告、自我反思等都是評價的素材。學生本人、學習同伴、導師、任課教師、專家學者、行業從業者都可以成為評價主體。

     

    真實學習所需要的能力

     

    此時我們會聽到擔憂的聲音:上面這些描述怎么看怎么像大學,甚至比一般大學還要前衛,它適合基礎教育嗎?適合高中的孩子們嗎?

     

    對于一直接受傳統基礎教育的大多數學生,他們也許并不能夠很快適應這樣一種“真實的學習”,因為它需要學生至少在以下幾個方面達到一定的水平并在“真實的學習”過程中可以不斷地提高:

     

    1.清晰準確的自我認知 

    學生能夠從知識、能力、興趣、個性、情緒、思維方式等不同維度全面、客觀地認識自己,同時知道去向何方,即有清晰的“坐標”、目標和規劃。

     

    2.強大的內驅力和行動力

    對學習和生活充滿熱情,這樣的熱情來自學生的好奇與勇氣。能夠以開放的心態迎接挑戰,并在不斷的實踐過程中善于反思和調整,靈活應對變化。

     

    3.良好思維習慣和溝通協作能力  

    能夠獨立地思考、分析和推斷;具備同理心,善于傾聽與理解他人;能準確地表達觀點;能與他人有效合作。

     

    如上闡述并非強調“真實的學校”要對學生本身進行篩選,而是基于未來社會的發展和對人才的需求,對學校、教師、學生、家庭等教育共同體提出的要求,或者說這就是學習本來的樣子。

     

    我們會擔憂、會疑惑,或許只是習慣了灌輸式地教授和等待式地投喂這樣傳統的教與學。我們習慣了傳統學習,甚至已經進入保持傳統的“慣性”狀態,一旦受到教育創新的沖擊,我們不應害怕改變,而是需要先做出一些調整,或者說可能會經歷一些“不適”的過程,但當我們習慣新的“慣性”狀態時,真正的學習就會一直發生。

     

    誠然,創見一所“讓教育回歸真實”的學校并非坐而論道,從突破校園邊界到內部空間設計,從正式學習到非正式學習,從合作式PBL到大學先修課,我們正在扎扎實實地探究與實踐。同時,在行動的道路上我們不是獨行者,而是與越來越多的創新教育者攜手前行,共同推動教育回歸真實,恢復學習本來的樣子,把“學習”這件事還給學生。  



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