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    “眼見”一定“為實”?:批判性思維視角下的真與偽

    • -北京市建華實驗亦莊國際高中籌備組
    • 2019/04/12

    在提及未來社會需要的思維技能時,批判性思維是一個不可忽視的學術名詞,我們前不久分享了正在重新定義校園的“Minerva(密涅瓦)”,同樣批判性思維也是密涅瓦大學非常重視的思維習慣和基本概念(Habits of Mind and Foundational Concepts)之一。

    市面上各種聲稱可以快速培養「批判性思維」的課程或講座讓人眼花繚亂,網絡上也可以輕易搜索出諸多文章。如此多的信息我們該如何甄選,其實這個問題本身就需要用到“批判性思維”這項思維技能。

    那么,「批判性思維」到底學什么?學生要怎么學?結合我多年的教育經歷,借本文與大家分享我對于批判性思維的理解。

    1.批判性思維的學習主體不僅僅是孩子

    作為教育界的“時尚課程”,孩子們,或者說我們每個人為什么要學習批判性思維?

    批判性思維在哲學界有著悠久的歷史和傳統,并在揭示自然世界和社會生活的現象和問題上發揮了長久且重要的作用。“批判的”英文單詞“critical”源于希臘文“kriticos”和“criterion”這兩個單詞,“kriticos”表示“提問、理解某物的意義和有能力分析”,即“辨明或判斷的能力”,而“criterion”即“標準”。目前關于批判性思維的定義學界說法不一。

    已知最早的記載中,蘇格拉底認為人們不能只依靠權威來獲取知識。他提出,我們應該學會如何搜集證據,檢驗推理和假設,分析概念的涵義,追溯語義,并語用地追查其含義。

    美國哲學家和教育家約翰·杜威(在國內他更為人熟知的身份是哥倫比亞大學的教授以及胡適先生的老師。)進一步提出,在教育中,我們不僅要教授批判性思維,還要將其列為現代公民生活的重要方式。

    作為出國留學的最熱門國家之一,從里根政府時期直到今日,美國的各層次機構和組織都在不斷推動批判性思維在教育中的實踐。從教育法到州立教育法案,再到與學生和家長息息相關的課程和學力評價體系、教師認證體系以及升學體系,批判性思維都被列為重要的參考標準。

    我們仔細查閱了教科文、歐盟、美國、新西蘭等組織、國家的核心素養體系,其中無一例外提及“批判性思維”。縱觀歷史,立足當下,無論是基于我們短期的升學目標,還是基于適應未來的成長發展考慮,批判性思維都已經成為了一項我們應該去學習和掌握的重要思維技能。

     

    2. 掌握批判性思維能力≠會讀書會考試

    在搜索引擎中輸入批判性思維能力,得出的答案五花八門。在學術界,對于衡量批判性思維的具體能力的維度,教育工作者們也在不斷進行修訂和改進。根據美國NPEC National Postsecondary Education Cooperative)總結的標準,最為我們熟知的能力是分析論證,推理和判斷,并進行決策和解決問題的能力。

    我們往往熟悉這樣的場景,例如在參加辯論賽時如何快速有效地大量搜集并篩選事實資料,拆解對手的思路,組織語言和論點反駁對方,以證明自己的觀點;在理化課堂學習時如何提出假設并用科學實驗證明和推導等。                                        

    我們會慶祝孩子們在競賽或項目中取得了成績,然而常常被忽視的是,批判性思維更多的是影響孩子的品格。思想開放、講道理、同理心、換位思考、知識面廣泛、靈活變通等,這些孩子們適應未來需要具備的能力,不是一個獎杯或一紙證書能夠賦予的。

    學習的目的不止在課本,知識的理解終究要遷移到生活。從“人活著是為了什么,什么樣的生活是有意義的”這樣的哲學討論,到“要不要在上學期間談戀愛”、“支教對農村有沒有幫助”這些具體的社會生活議題,甚至是“我不想學這個專業我要怎么辦”、“我要不要換工作”這些個人困惑。我們發現,大多數時候生活都充滿不確定性,價值觀也并不是非黑即白,許多問題都無法迅速得出“答案”。

    批判性思維的學習過程,恰恰是我們的孩子、或者我們自身在走向社會的過程中所需要的,能夠理解自己和他人的立場,能提出質疑,形成信念,做出判斷,并獨當一面地生存下去。這可以說是一項超越課堂的畢生課題。

     

    3.如何培養批判性思維?

    在知識爆炸的時代,我們該如何運用“批判性思維”去審視這些鋪天蓋地的批判性思維課程呢?我們似乎有許多選擇。結合我的經驗,分享兩點建議:

    a.批判性思維地培養并非一蹴而就

    雖然現在聲稱可以快速培養批判性思維的課程和課外活動比比皆是,但是根據學者和制定評價體系的專家們的建議,在選擇和評估課程的時候,不能忽視基礎教育和事實知識的積累。

    只有足夠的知識積累,才能讓孩子對常識問題有獨立的判斷,并且以學科思維和學科知識為背景,訓練論證推理能力。

    就我個人經歷而言,在北京接受本科教育,隨后在英美留學,又在香港讀博,也負責過國內本科學生的教學。從海內外學習的實際看,知識儲備和科學思維也是適應國際一流大學的學習和生活的必備技能。相比之下,歐美的學生在升入高等教育前,往往接受過扎實的邏輯和哲學思維訓練,尤其是在社會科學領域對理論的把握和對觀點的表達和論證。

    b.培養批判性思維,不止是在學校

    正如教育的目的也包括讓孩子適應社會化的生存,我們培養孩子的能力,也不能僅僅停留在課堂上。家庭是孩子的第一所學校,父母和家庭在日常生活中可以有意識地引導孩子積累科學和社會常識。比如常見于廣告中的“包治百病”其實僅僅是一種“保健品”。學習論證和反駁,就能讓孩子了解、思考、實踐批判性思維,辨別真科學與偽科學。

    其實,日常生活中的很多問題哪怕是成年人也不能即刻回答,但這不就是我們學習批判性思維的目的嗎?誰說成年人就不會有思維的盲區和困惑呢?敢于發問,不也是殊途同歸,千年前蘇格拉底所倡導的嗎?

     

    讀書期間,我曾協助導師教授本科生歷史課,或許是傳統教育體系下大家已經形成了固化的思維模式,對如何評價社會發展進程的答案是清一色的:“這個歷史人物的這方面是好的”“這個階層腐敗了,是不好的”。然而當我追問為什么你覺得這個人是“好的”?以及“為什么你選擇腐敗作為衡量社會發展的因素?”時,學生們普遍都呆住了。因為他們從來沒有這樣思考過問題,他們沒有明確自己是從什么立場上來衡量“好”或者從哪一種學科視角來闡釋“社會發展進程的因素”,比如社會階層的力量、經濟結構等等。

    這些學生在國內也許是應試教育體系下的優勝者,但是當我們的孩子與全世界的優秀學生一起競爭時,如果連學科的基本視角以及自己價值判斷的立場都無法闡明,他們又如何能夠獨立地面對未來社會的種種未知與變化?而批判性思維的培養恰恰是能夠打破這種僵化思維模式的重要思維技能,同時,這種思維技能的培養不能停留在某個學段或時期,而是應該貫穿于我們的終身學習中。



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